Global consensus (2)

We donand’t have to see democracy as the denial of virtues and morality.
If we donand’t find higher values and limits to agree on, if people are persuaded one way or another, it is impossible to prevent democracy from evolving into an elected kingdom, a modern form of tyranny. The only way to avoid oppression and autocracy is to accept that the fact that andquotabsolute powerandquot should not be given to anyone, including the public. The recent examples of democracies which give way to oppression include the French Jacobins, German and Italian fascism, and Soviet Bolshevism and clearly show us who and which cultural environments are the worst offenders.
Historically, the Muand’tazilite and Mashshaand’i (peripatetic) philosophers argued that human beings can know and distinguish between what is good and what is evil without consulting religious sources, and this was part of a search to find a common denominator between andquotmoralistic atheismandquot and andquotreligion.andquot Why atheists choose to become atheists and how atheism shapes their perspective of the world is more important than atheism itself.
There is a form of atheism that denies Godand’s knowledge of his own existence and we should not waste our energy in dealing with this form of atheism. But if a person becomes an atheist by making historical and social observations that the idea of God and religious devotion lead to moral weakness, his quest will always be for the establishment of a moral world. The only shortcoming for this person is that he fetishizes happiness by means of other ethical approaches. This may readily give way to hedonism. This is because if a person does not care about andquotindividual virtues which are aspects of morality,andquot he reduces ethics to what is beautiful and desirable. Moreover, he assumes that each part of morality or each human endeavor may have its specific ethical understanding and norms, and this leads to the fragmentation of morality.
Then, the question arises: If we are supposed to take our desires which are linked to happiness as references for our decisions and practical attitudes and behaviors, how can we restrain our insatiable desires and passions? What will keep us from altering our values as long as they maintain their andquotood propertiesandquot? What if our wisdom, on which we rely heavily, becomes controlled by our desires and passions? If what is beautiful or beauty itself is marketed by evil-minded forces, such as the systems that fetishize market profits, the media and powerful elites, will it be andquotour beautyandquot?
For capitalism, anything that promotes and ensures material gain is moral, isnand’t it? What moral values or ethics can be sought with this definition of morality? Or will capitalist market ethics — the expression of the norms of market capitalism which sees profit as the absolute aim — turn into a global morality to which the entire world will be subjected? If so, why do poor and poverty-stricken people not benefit from this morality sufficiently?
Many atheists, whose number has markedly grown in modern times, tend to become atheists in support of the God-less conception of the existence and universe, but they work for the establishment of a more peaceful, less exploitative, demilitarized, pluralistic, fair and fraternal world. I refer to them as morally-oriented atheists (hanifs) in terms of their quests and struggles. Indeed, it is a natural or moral motivation which drives such atheists to conscientious rebellion.
When Nietzsche said, andquotod is dead,andquot he precisely meant what Dostoevsky meant when he said, andquotEverything is permissible if there is no God.andquot Neither is God dead nor can man do anything he wants. This is what we realize at least empirically. For this reason, we are in need of consensus, and a global consensus can be ensured via dedication to freedoms, conscience, justice and moral virtues.

SOURCE: TODAY’S ZAMAN

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